3.14 Setting axis rangesBy default, Pyxplot automatically scales axes to some sensible range which contains all of the plotted data. However, it is possible for the user to override this and set his own range. This can be done directly from the plot command, by following the word plot with the syntax [minimum:maximum].^{1} The first specified range applies to the xaxis, and the second to the yaxis.^{2} In the following example, the first three cylindrical Bessel functions are plotted in the range : plot [0:10][0.5:1] besselJ(0,x), besselJ(1,x), besselJ(2,x) Any of the values can be omitted, as in the following plot of three Legendre polynomials: set key xcenter plot [1:1][:] legendreP(2,x), legendreP(4,x), legendreP(6,x) Here, we have used the set key command to specify that the plot’s legend should be horizontally aligned in the center of the plot, to complement the symmetry of the Legendre polynomials. This command will be described more fully in Section 8.7. Alternatively, ranges can be set before the plot statement, using the set xrange command, as in the examples: set xrange [2:2] set yrange [a:b] If an asterisk is supplied in place of either of the limits in this command, then any limit which had previously been set is switched off, and the axis returns to its default autoscaling behaviour: set xrange [2:*] A similar effect may be obtained using the set autoscale command, which takes a list of the axes to which it is to apply. Both the upper and lower limits of these axes are set to scale automatically. If no list is supplied, then the command is applied to all axes. set autoscale x y set autoscale The range supplied to the set xrange can be followed by the word reverse to indicate that the axis should run from righttoleft, or from toptobottom. In practice, this is of limited use when an explicit range is specified, as the following two commands are equivalent: set xrange [2:2] reverse set xrange [2:2] noreverse However, this is useful when axes are set to autoscale: set xrange [*:*] reverse Axes can be set to have logarithmic scales by using the set logscale command, which also takes a list of axes to which it should apply. Its converse is set nologscale: set logscale set nologscale y x x2 Further discussion of the configuration of axes can be found in Section 8.8.1. Example: A diagram of the trajectories of projectiles fired with different initial velocities
In this example we produce a diagram of the trajectories of projectiles fired by a cannon at the origin with different initial velocities and different angles of inclination . According to the equations of motion under constant acceleration, the distance of such a projectile from the origin after time is given by In the script below, we plot this function for five different values of and . g = phy.g # Acceleration due to gravity deg = unit(deg) # Convert degrees to radians # The mathematical equation of a trajectory h(x,theta,v) = x*tan(theta*deg)  0.5*g*x**2/(v**2*cos(theta*deg)**2) # Plot configuration set xlabel r"$x$" set ylabel r"$h$" set xrange [unit(0*m):unit(20*m)] set yrange [unit(0*m):] set key below set title r’Trajectories of projectiles fired with speed $v$ at angle $theta$’ plot h(x,30,unit(10*m/s)) t r"$theta=30circ;qquad v=10,{rm m,s{1}}$", h(x,45,unit(10*m/s)) t r"$theta=45circ;qquad v=10,{rm m,s{1}}$", h(x,60,unit(10*m/s)) t r"$theta=60circ;qquad v=10,{rm m,s{1}}$", h(x,30,unit(15*m/s)) t r"$theta=30circ;qquad v=15,{rm m,s{1}}$", h(x,60,unit(15*m/s)) t r"$theta=60circ;qquad v=15,{rm m,s{1}}$" Footnotes
